Observations of sea level and relevant processes are important in order to improve the modelling of future regional sea level change. In some places, vertical land motion may offset sea level rise or may add to it, caused by tectonic processes, large-scale crustal adjustment from previous ice ages, and subsidence. Sea level reconstructions from prehistoric periods from and between previous ice ages can provide constraints on rates and maximum levels of sea level change.
A combined use of different types of Earth system data is necessary in order to properly understand processes governing variability and long-term change.
Assimilation of high quality observational data into operational models and development of decadal prediction systems is essential for improved understanding of the Earth system, and hence being able to project future changes.
Paleo sea level records help placing modern changes in context and can be used to constrain estimates of future sea level change. Paleo records aid estimations of present and future vertical land motion, which is essential for regional sea level assessments.